Understanding Social Anxiety in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms, and Management Strategies

A bell curve graph illustrating the spectrum of dog sociability, ranging from highly social to extremely anxious, with the majority of dogs falling in the middle range of sociability.

Understanding and Managing Social Anxiety in Dogs

Social anxiety in dogs can manifest in a multitude of ways, from the subtle showing of teeth to the more obvious attempts to hide or escape a situation. As pet guardians, recognizing and addressing these signs of distress is crucial for the well-being of our canine companions. This comprehensive guide will explore the causes, symptoms, and management strategies for social anxiety in dogs, aiming to foster a deeper understanding and stronger bond between pets and their human families.

Causes of Social Anxiety in Dogs

Social anxiety in canines is often rooted in early experiences or a lack of exposure to various social situations during the critical socialization phase, which typically occurs between three and fourteen weeks of age. However, genetics can also play a significant role in a dog’s predisposition to anxiety disorders (Tiira et al., 2016). Negative experiences, such as improper socialization, traumatic events, or even genetics, can contribute to the development of social anxiety.

Recognizing Social Anxiety

Pet guardians must be vigilant in observing their dogs’ behavior, as anxiety can present in various ways:

  • Body Language: An anxious dog may exhibit a lowered head, flattened ears, tucking of the tail, or even a cowering stance.
  • Avoidance Behavior: Hiding or seeking an escape route when faced with social interactions.
  • Vocalization: Excessive barking or whining in social settings can be a sign of discomfort.
  • Aggression: In some cases, fear-induced aggression can be a response to social anxiety.

Understanding these signs is the first step in addressing your dog’s discomfort (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals [ASPCA], n.d.).

Addressing the Underlying Issues

Before attempting to remedy social anxiety, it’s essential to consult with a professional, such as a certified dog behavior consultant, to rule out any medical issues that could be contributing to your dog’s anxiety.

Gradual Desensitization

One evidence-based method to help dogs with social anxiety is gradual desensitization. This involves exposing your dog to social situations in a very controlled and gradual manner. It requires patience, as the goal is to slowly build your dog’s confidence without overwhelming them. This is achieved by introducing them to new people, animals, and environments at a distance where they do not react anxiously, and gradually decreasing that distance over time (Overall, 2013).


Coupled with desensitization, counter-conditioning can help change your dog’s emotional response to anxiety-inducing stimuli. This process involves associating the feared situation with something positive, like their favorite treats or play (Schwartz, 2003). For instance, if your dog shows signs of anxiety around new people, they could be given high-value treats when someone approaches at a comfortable distance, slowly changing their perception of the situation from negative to positive.

Consistency and Routine

Dogs thrive on predictability. Establishing a routine that includes regular walks, meals, and playtime can provide a sense of security and help reduce anxiety. During interactions with others, maintaining a calm and consistent approach can reassure your dog that they are safe.

Training and Obedience

Basic obedience training provides a foundation of trust and communication between dogs and their pet guardians. Commands such as “sit,” “stay,” and “come” not only foster mental stimulation but also give dogs a sense of control during stressful situations. Training should always be positive and reward-based, which reinforces good behavior without inducing additional stress (Ziv, 2017).

Socialization Classes

For some dogs, structured socialization classes can be beneficial. These classes are designed to expose your dog to new experiences in a safe and controlled environment. A certified dog behavior consultant can help facilitate positive social interactions and offer support to pet guardians.

Environmental Management

Creating a safe space at home can also help dogs with social anxiety. This could be a quiet room or a special crate where your dog can retreat to when feeling overwhelmed. It’s a place where they should never be disturbed, which can provide a significant sense of security (Overall, 2013).

Professional Help

Sometimes, despite a pet guardian’s best efforts, professional help may be necessary. Behavioral modification plans created by certified dog behavior consultants are tailored to each dog’s specific needs. In more severe cases, a veterinarian might suggest medication in conjunction with behavioral therapy to manage anxiety (Simpson et al., 2017).

Pharmacological Interventions

In cases where behavioral interventions alone are not enough. It’s important to note that medication should be seen as a tool to use alongside behavioral modification, not a standalone solution.

Alternative Therapies

Some pet guardians have found success with alternative therapies, such as calming aids for dog anxiety pheromone diffusers, calming wraps, or supplements. While scientific evidence supporting these treatments is still emerging, they may offer additional support when used in conjunction with proven behavioral techniques (DePorter et al., 2016).


Social anxiety in dogs is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted approach. Understanding the signs and taking proactive steps to manage anxiety can make a significant difference in the lives of our furry companions. Patience, consistency, and professional guidance are key components in helping dogs overcome social anxiety.

Through a combination of desensitization, counter-conditioning, training, and sometimes medical intervention, we can help our dogs lead happier, more comfortable lives. As pet guardians, it is our responsibility to provide our dogs with a nurturing environment that caters to both their physical and emotional needs.


  • American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (n.d.). Dog Behavior and Training – Dealing with Fear and Anxiety. ASPCA. https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/common-dog-behavior-issues/fear-and-anxiety
  • DePorter, T. L., Bledsoe, D. L., & Beck, A. (2016). Calming pheromones for dogs and cats: What’s the evidence? Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 52(5), 253-258.
  • Overall, K. L. (2013). Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats. Mosby.
  • Schwartz, C. (2003). Separation Anxiety Syndrome in Dogs and Cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 222(11), 1526-1532.
  • Simpson, B. S., Landsberg, G. M., Reisner, I. R., Ciribassi, J. J., Horwitz, D., Houpt, K. A., … & Parthasarathy, V. (2017). Effects of reconcile (fluoxetine) chewable tablets plus behavior management for canine separation anxiety. Veterinary Therapeutics: Research in Applied Veterinary Medicine, 8(1), 28-39.
  • Tiira, K., Lohi, H. (2016). Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties. PLoS ONE, 11(11), e0165448.
  • Ziv, G. (2017). The effects of using aversive training methods in dogs—A review. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 19, 50-60.